The history of Garson begins in 1856 when a government-sponsored survey resulted in the Sudbury area being divided into townships six miles square. As the survey process extended northwards, the number of townships grew, eventually resulting in the creation of the Township of Garson (named after William Garson, an MPP for Lincoln County).
The area around Garson was originally a trapping route used by the Hudson's Bay Company for fur trading. Only when logging began to take hold in the area did permanent settlements begin to arise.
In 1882, the Emery Lumber Company began its harvesting operations in the Garson area. They built a roundhouse and stables at what is known as Headquarter Lake. Because Garson was not near a viable waterway, logs had to be taken by rail to the sawmills for processing. The logs were brought to the railway (located where the Greater Sudbury Airport now stands) by horse-drawn sleds and loaded onto railway cars. They were then transported along the Wahnapitae - North Western line to the Township of Wahnapitae. From there, they were dumped onto the frozen Wanapitei River to await the spring thaw and their final journey to the sawmills at Byng Inlet.
The first roads in Garson were the result of logging trails built to transport the timber to the waiting railway cars. These roads were later named Birch Street, Goodwill Drive, Garson Lake Road, and Sunderland Road.
By 1910, the number of suitable trees in the area were dwindling, resulting in the decline of the logging industry in the area.